Oil & Gas - Exploration & Production
The exploration and production (E&P) industry’s activities can have significant impacts on biodiversity. Oil spills and leaks are a threat to species and habitats impacted by hydrocarbon contamination.
Oil and gas exploration and development activities, and associated services and support activities, can have significant impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems, particularly when companies operate in ecologically sensitive areas or are characterized by highly resource-intensive operations. These can occur through disposal of drilling and associated wastes, well decommissioning, land use, and fuel spills.
The storage and transport of crude oil, natural gas, and related products through a vast system of maritime transportation vehicles, pipelines, trains, and trucks presents considerable risk to the environment. Leaks, accidental discharges, pipeline rights-of-way, and open easements over ecologically sensitive land could impact ecosystems in several ways, including natural habitat loss and changes in species movement.
Coal operations can have a range of impacts on biodiversity. Surface mining and mountaintop removal can impact wildlife habitats. Acid mine drainage is particularly significant: it is highly acidic water, rich in heavy metals, formed when surface and shallow subsurface water comes into contact with coal mining overburden, and can have harmful effects on animals and plants.
Metals & Mining
The development, operation, closure, and remediation of mines can have a range of impacts on biodiversity, such as vegetation removal and impacts to wildlife habitats. Acid rock drainage is a particularly significant risk: it is highly acidic water, rich in heavy metals, formed when surface and shallow subsurface water come into contact with mining overburden. Acid rock drainage can have harmful effects on animals and plants.
Construction materials companies often operate their own quarries close to processing facilities. Quarrying requires the removal of vegetation and topsoil. The activities have impacts on biodiversity.